Published on
Mar 1, 2024

Parallax Advanced Research defines the Science of Intelligent Teaming™ as basic and applied research of highly diverse machine and human teams and how they interact and perform with one another. 

Optimal teaming is integral to the success of any organization. Innovators and leaders at Parallax Advanced Research concur that the process of creating effective, efficient, and intelligent teams requires careful consideration and systematic organization. 

‘Science’ conveys our involvement in and commitment to basic research and our capability as a comprehensive research organization. ‘Intelligent’ conveys the artificial intelligence portion of Parallax’s research that involves doing things smarter with a 21st century mindset. And ‘teaming’ conveys our approach to industry, academia, and government collaboration. - Dr. Edie Williams, Chief, Strategic Partnerships, Communications and New Business, Parallax Advanced Research

One example of the above is a graduate program in the Department of Psychology at Wright State University that Parallax facilitates in partnership with General Dynamics. The program involves computer engineering students, who work for General Dynamics and are attending classes as part of a graduate program at the Department of Psychology, to gain advanced knowledge of human-machine teaming. This collaboration also illustrates Parallax’s approach to incorporating and fostering intelligent teaming in diverse contexts.  

Dr. Darrell Lochtefeld, Parallax division manager of Research, Development, Testing, and Evaluation elaborates on the meaning of the Science of Intelligent Teaming™.

Intelligent teaming is a dual term that refers to how we optimally utilize diverse human and machine capabilities and how we team efficiently with complex systems that typically contain some form of artificial intelligence. Since machines and humans have different qualities and perform differently, intelligent teaming involves understanding the strengths and weaknesses of each member of a team, whether it's a human or a machine, and using that understanding to develop solutions and improved ways for continued teaming. - Dr. Darrell Lochtefeld, VP & Division Manager of Intelligent Systems, Parallax Advanced Research

Science of Intelligent Teaming™

According to Parallax Advanced Research Director of Cognitive Research, Dr. Mary Frame, who works on the human elements of human machine teaming, the concept of intelligent teaming in the scientific context originated with the cognitive revolution at least as far back as the 1950s. However, the way Parallax imbibes the concept and the extent to which the organization incorporates it across its operations is novel. 

What I’m excited about is the fact that we have made the Science of Intelligent Teaming™ our brand, so that it pervades at all levels of our operations. It permeates our culture, our organizational structures, and our strategic plans. - Dr. Mary Frame, Director of Cognitive Research, Parallax Advanced Research

To further illustrate the role of Science of Intelligent Teaming™ in research done at Parallax, Dr. Othalia Larue, Computational Cognitive scientist at Parallax, uses an example from her work on modeling of individual differences that aims to capture the cognitive profiles of people to predict their response to automation.  

I’m working on understanding how individual differences in cognitive processing influence people’s behavior. - Dr. Othalia Larue, Computational Cognitive Scientist, Parallax Advanced Research

All major decisions at Parallax are structured around strengths and opportunities for individuals in the organization. The Science of Intelligent Teaming™ affects how and where new employees are placed and considers that each addition to or subtracted from the team results in both new strengths and new weaknesses. In the past few years, with constantly evolving scenarios for collaborations, the definition and demands of teaming have changed rapidly. To keep up with these changes, it is critical to have a robust system of assessing and developing efficient and dynamic teaming methods.  

About Parallax Advanced Research
Parallax Advanced Research is a 501(c)(3) private nonprofit research institute that tackles global challenges through strategic partnerships with government, industry, and academia. It accelerates innovation, addresses critical global issues, and develops groundbreaking ideas with its partners. With offices in Ohio and Virginia, Parallax aims to deliver new solutions and speed them to market. In 2023, Parallax and the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) formed a collaborative affiliation to drive innovation and technological advancements in Ohio and for the Nation. OAI plays a pivotal role in advancing the aerospace industry in Ohio and the nation by fostering collaborations between universities, aerospace industries, and government organizations and managing aerospace research, education, and workforce development projects. More information about both organizations can be found at and